When did fashion first began
Fashions change so quickly that it's difficult to follow them. What was “in fashion” yesterday may be out of fashion tomorrow. Even people who do not take much interest in clothes and fashion can't but notice how radically people around change with each new swing of fashion. Let's briefly describe the main changes in people's appearance that took place in the 20th century.
Before the First World War fashions did not change very quickly. Men wore dark suits. They had short hair and moustaches were popular. Women wore long dresses and they had long hair. Under their dresses they wore stiff corsets. These gave women a very narrow waist, but they were very uncomfortable.
In the Roaring Twenties dresses and hair became much shorter. People saw women's knees for the first time! Corsets disappeared. A straight figure with no waist or bust was fashionable. For men, trousers with very wide legs became fashionable. They were called Oxford bags.
In the 1930s and 40s hair, dresses and coats became longer again. Men's fashion didn't change very much. Men wore a suit, a tie and usually a hat, too. Moustaches were less popular.
In the 1950s people were richer and teenagers spent a lot of money on clothes. For men this was the age of the Teddy boy. Teddy boys wore long jackets in very bright colours – pink, orange or yellow – and very tight trousers called “drainpipes”. For women jumpers and blouses with wide skirts and short sockets were the fashion. Both men and women wore shoes with long pointed toes. The women's shoes had high stiletto heels.
The 1960s saw a revolution in clothes. Everything changed. This was the time of the mini-skirt and long boots. For the first time in the twentieth century men had long hair, the famous Beatle haircut.
In the late 1960s and the early 70s the hippy “flower power” style was in. women wore loose maxi-dresses. Men wore jeans and brightly colored shirts or T-shirts. Clothes were very colorful. Very long hair was fashionable for men and women, and beards became more common (but only for men).
The 80s brought teenagers with punk hairstyles in red, blue, purple and green, and brightly coloured makeup.
The 1990s brought about unisex fashion as well as rockers and bikers with leather jackets, leather trousers, a lot of metal accessories and decorations.
What will the 21st century bring us?
Exercise 3. Find answers to the following questions in the text above.
What did not change very quickly before the First World War?
What dresses did women wear before the First World War?
What did they wear under their dresses?
What did stiff corsets give women?
What kind of dresses and hair were in the Roaring Twenties?
When did people see women's knees for the first time?
What disappeared in the Roaring Twenties?
What was fashionable at that time?
What kind of trousers became fashionable for men?
What didn't change very much in the 1930s and 40s?
What did men wear in the 1930s?
How much money did teenagers spend on clothes in the 1950s?
What age was it for men?
What jackets did Teddy boys wear?
What was the name of very tight trousers at that time?
What was fashionable for women in the 1950s?
What shoes did men and women wear then?
What time was the 1960s?
When did men have long hair for the first time?
When did women wear loose maxi-dresses?
What did men wear in the late 1960s and early 70s?
What hair was fashionable for men and women at that time?
What did the 80s and 90s bring?
Exercise 4. Match the English words and word combination with their Ukrainian equivalents.
pointed toes 1. піжон, стиляга
to disappear 2. носити (одяг)
to wear 3. загострені носки
suit 4. просторий, широкий
makeup 5. футболка
stiff corsets 6. косметика
T-shit 7. вузька талія
drain pipes 8. зникати
teddy boy 9. дудочки
loose 10. каблуки, шпильки
narrow waist 11. костюм
stiletto heels 12. тугий корсет
Exercise 5. Complete the following sentences.
Before the First World War fashions _______.
Women wore stiff corsets and these gave them _______.
In the Roaring Twenties dresses and hair became _______.
A straight figure _______ was fashionable.
For men trousers with wide legs became fashionable. They were called _______.
In the 1950s people were richer and teenagers _______ on clothes.
Teddy boys wore long jackets in _______ -pink, orange or yellow – and very _______ trousers called _______.
Exercise 6. Give English equivalents of the following words and, word combinations:
Носити тугі корсети; вузька талія; носити довгі сукні; становитися набагато короче; пряма фігура; стиляга; дудочки; дуже вузькі брюки; джемпер та блуза с просторою спідницею; загострені носки; тонкі каблуки; відома стрижка Бітлів; просторі максі-сукні; футболка; косметика.
Exercise 7. Fill in the gaps with the verbs given in the box
to put, on to wear, to dress
Do you like ________ ready-made clothes?
I learned ________ myself when I was 3 years old.
It's cold outside, ________ the baby warmer.
It won't take me long ________ another dress.
I don't remember what exactly she ________ but I do remember she ________ well.
Which does she prefer ________: shirts or trousers?
Her clothes are too loud. I don't like the way she ________.
________ your nightgown and go to bed!
Exercise 8. Discuss the text you have read.
Say in which decades women wore their hair short and in which long. And what about the length of their skirts. Did the length of the hair and the length of skirt coincide?
Which decades witnessed the most radical changes in men's fashion, in your opinion? Prove your point with the facts from the text.
In which periods of history do you think men and women dressed especially attractively? Describe what you like about their clothes.
Exercise 9. Complete the following statements using some of the words given in the box below.
People who never clean their shoes are _______.
People who wear matching clothes are _______.
People who always wear a suit and a tie are _______.
People who always wear dark clothes are _______.
People who wear bright colours are _______.
People who like to design their own clothes are _______.
People who never experiment with their clothes are _______.
People who wear crumpled clothes are _______.
People who closely follow the fashion are _______.
People who prepare in the evening the clothes they will wear the next day are _______.
Exercise 10. Write these sentences in the singular.
They sit at the window and watch the traffic.
They wash their hands and dry them on a towel.
They hit their dog with a stick when they are angry with it.
Birds build their nests in the summer and fly to the south in the winter.
The children play all the morning and sleep in the afternoon.
My friends like meat, but do not like fish.
They live in small houses which have only three rooms.
His brothers work hard all day and want to rest in the evening.
They have breakfast at eight o'clock and eat their lunch at half-past one.
These boys say that they always listen carefully, but do not always understand their teachers because they speak too quickly and choose very difficult words.
Our friends leave for the Crimea at three today and arrive there about ten; they spend their holidays there every year and swim in the sea or sleep nearly all the time. They forget their work, enjoy the sea air and live as free as birds. Their holidays finish in August, they catch an early train back to Kharkiv and feel well and happy when they return to work.
My friends tell me that professors are people who think a lot, but say little.
Exercise 11. Write the following sentences (a) in the Past Tense; (b) as Past Tense
negatives; (c) as Past Tense questions:
1. I break a cup. 2. It begins to rain. 3. You cut your finger. 4. She comes early. 5. I lie on the bed. 6. He teaches English. 7. The river flows to the sea. 8. I know his name.
9. You lie to me. 10. He wears his coat. 11. They have a car. 12. We wake up at seven.
13. Your dog bites me. 14. It costs a lot of money. 15. The river freezes in winter.
16. They drink tea every day. 17. I choose a book. 18. You wear a lively dress. 19. We ring the bell. 20 I put the book on the table. 21. You spend too much money. 22. The red light means “stop”. 23. They build a house. 24. The sick man gets better. 25. Flowers grow in my garden. 26. She loses her way. 27. She understands everything. 28. The wind blows strongly. 29. I use my car every day. 30. The artist draws a picture. 31. He leaves at six. 32. The plane flies high. 33. He tries to help them. 34. She wants coffee for breakfast.
35. He sells foreign stamps. 36. The room holds 50 people. 37. He reads the paper before he goes to bed.
Exercise 12. Put the following sentences into the Future Indefinite Tense.
1. We always ask that question. 2. You never answer me correctly without the help of the book. 3. I never believe you. 4. You don’t understand it. 5. It doesn't cost very much. 6. We don’t do any work in the class. 7. Why doesn’t she drink her cocoa. 8. I eat an orange every day. 9. I never have much money. 10. It doesn’t hurt you. 11. I know the answer now. 12. Do I forget so easily? 13. They come here every day. 14. I don’t remember his name. 15. Do we need any new books?
Exercise 13. Read the text again, find all the verbs and define their tense.
Exercise 14. Put in suitable conjunctions of time [when, until (till), before, after, as soon (long) as, while, by the time (that)] in the following sentences.
He will stay here _______ you come.
I'll come and see you _______ I have time.
We shall be ready _______ you are.
_______ you come tomorrow, I will give you a new book.
_______ they show me their homework, I will correct it.
We shall go _______ he is ready.
She will speak to you _______ come in.
You must wait _______ the light changes to green.
I'll write to you _______ I leave England.
Let's stay at home _______ the rain stops.
These brave men will fight _______ they die.
_______ I live, I shall always remember his face.
You will be able to play the piano _______ you like.
Don’t buy bananas _______ they become cheaper.
We must buy some shirts _______ they become dearer.
This coat will lose its colour _______ it's washed.
He will sell the cloth _______ the price rises.
I shall wait _______ the price falls.
The corn will grow quickly _______ they water the fields.
Exercise 15. Learn the dialogue by heart:
Katya: Hello, Olya.
Olya: Hello, Katya.
Katya: Yesterday my grandmother read me the article about 20th Century fashion. Have you known, that in the Roaring Twenties people saw women’s knees for the first time!
Olya: It's fantastic. I read that in the 1930s and 40s hair. Dresses and coats became longer and moustaches were popular.
Katya: Oh, it's very funny to have moustaches!
Olya: I don’t think so. Moustaches make men serious.
Katya: Olga, did you hear anything about teddy boys?
Olya: Yes, certainly, in the 1950s people spent a lot of money on clothes. For men that was the age of the teddy boy. Teddy boys wore long jackets in very bright colours – pink, orange or yellow – and very tight trousers called drainpipes.
Katya: I heard that in the 1950s both men and women wore shoes with long pointed toes. The women’s shoes had high stiletto heels.
Olya: Oh, It's very interesting. But the 1960s saw a revolution in clothes. Everything changed. For the first time in the twentieth century men had long hair, the famous Beatle haircut.
Katya: Olga, have you ever seen hippy?
Olya: Yes, I have. But I do not want to dye my hair in pink or green colour.
Katya: Me too. Today’s fashion is very nice and I like it. Especially shoes with long pointed toes and high stiletto heels. This winter it was fashionable to wear long coats without belts. This spring and summer blue will be in the colour. It is very nice, isn’t it?
Olya: Yes, it is. It seems to me that this year it will be fashionable to wear big pockets.
Katya: Yes, it's true. Almost all clothes will have big pockets; kneelength jackets, trousers, blouses and other clothes.
Olya: Oh, excuse me. I must be going. See you later.
Katya: Good bye!
To dye one's hair – красити волосся.
Часи групи Indefinite виражають дію, що відбувається в теперішньому часі, минулому або майбутньому, без зазначення її характеру, тривалості, співвіднесеності з іншою дією.
І. Утворення теперішнього неозначеного часу(Present Indefinite Tense).
Стверджувальна форма дієслова в Present Indefinite в усіх особах однини і множини, крім третьої особи однини, збігається з інфінітивом без частки to. У третій особі однини до інфінітива додається закінчення –(e) s.
I wear a T-shirt
You wear a T-shirt
He (she) wears a T-shirt
We (they) wear a T-shirt
Питальна форма Present Indefinite утворюється з допоміжного дієслова to do в Present Indefinite та інфінітива основного дієслова без частки to. Допоміжне дієслово do (does) ставиться перед підметом.
Do I wear tennis shoes?
Do you wear tennis shoes
Does he (she, it) wear tennis shoes?
Do we (they) wear tennis shoes
Питальна форма дієслів to be, must, can і may утворюється без допоміжного дієслова.
Is there a suit on the bed?
May I put on a new dress?
Заперечна форма Present Indefinite утворюється з допоміжного дієслова to do у Present Indefinite, заперечної частки not та інфінітива основного дієслова без частки to.
I do not wear jeans
You do not wear jeans
He (she, it) does not wear jeans
We (you, they) do not wear jeans.
Present Indefinite вживається для вираження звичайної, постійної дії, яка відбувається взагалі, а не в момент мовлення.
He lives in Kharkiv
She speaks English well.
З дієсловами to see, to know, to hear, to feel, to want, to like, to understand та деякими іншими Present Indefinite вживається для вираження дії, що відбувається в момент мовлення.
ІІ. Утворення Past Indefinite
Стверджувальна форма Past Indefinite правильних дієслів утворюється додаванням закінчення –ed до інфінітива без частки to
He (she, it) worked yesterday
Форми Past Indefinite неправильних дієслів необхідно запам’ятати. Для цього існує таблиця неправильних дієслів.
Питальна і заперечна форми Past Indefinite утворюється за тими ж правилами, що й Present Indefinite, але допоміжне слово to do має в Past Indefinite форму did в усіх особах.
I didn’t wear shirts without collars at all
Did you wear shirts without collars?
What did he do at the French ready – to wear show?
Past Indefinite вживається для вираження дії, що відбулась, або відбувалась у минулому і не пов’язана з теперішнім моментом мовлення. Past Indefinite – типова форма для опису минулих подій.
Past Indefinite часто вживається з обставинними словами yesterday, last week, last year; the other day та ін.
Many professionals, buyers and press attended
The French Ready – to – Wear Show last week
The colours for spring 2002 were clear and bright
Mini skirts became very fashionable last year.
Утворення та вживання Future Indefinite.
Future Indefinite утворюється з допоміжних дієслів shall (для першої особи однини і множини) і will (для другої і третьої осіб однини і множини) та інфінітива основного дієслова без частки to. Допоміжне дієслово will може вживатись і для утворення першої особи однини і множини.
Питальна й заперечна форми Future Indefinite утворюються з допоміжних дієслів shall або will та інфінітива основного дієслова без частки to.
I shall / will (I’ll) speak English
you will (you’ll) speak English
He will (he’ll) speak English
she will (she’ll) speak English
We shall / will (we’ll) speak English
You will (you’ll) speak English
They will (they’ll) speak English
Shall / will I speak English?
Will you speak English?
Will he / she speak English?
Shall / will we speak English?
Will you speak English?
Will they speak English?
I shall not (shan’t) speak English
I will not (won’t) speak English
You will not (won’t) speak English
He (she) it will not (won’t) speak English
We shall not (shan’t) speak English
We will not (won’t) speak English
You will not (won’t) speak English
They will not (won’t) speak English.
Future Indefinite вживається для вираження постійної або повторюваної дії, що відбудеться в майбутньому. При цьому вживаються такі обставинні слова: tomorrow, next week, next month, next year і т.п.
I shall go to the Fashions Showing tomorrow.
I shall always keep up with the fashions.
У підрядних реченнях часу й умови форми майбутнього часу не вживаються. Для вираження майбутньої дії в таких реченнях вживаються форми Present Indefinite.
When she comes, I shall give her a new skirt
I shall buy a new shirt if I have time.