Timeline - Examining

Timeline - Examining
Year

Events

1851
  • The stereoscope becomes popular after being exhibited at the Crystal Palace Exhibition in London. The stereoscope is an instrument that unites images that are seen differently by each eye into one image creating a three-dimensional scene that allows the viewer to experience depth. The stereoscope is especially important to landscape photographers helping them to equally represent a landscape from two different points of sight. The stereoscope was a model for the creation of the Viewfinder in the 1950's, a popular children's toy.
1852
  • 1852 is the year that marks the death of Fredrick Froebel, the man who is credited with the fundamental ideas and establishments of kindergarten. As a zealous advocate that children should learn through their playfulness, Froebel stated that his school would be called kindergarten, the garden of children. His ideals and his popular "Froebel gifts and occupations" have influenced the work of many artists such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Georges Braque, Piet Mondrian, Wassily Kandinsky, and many more.
1852
  • New York's School of Design for Women, a division of Cooper Institute, was founded in 1852. Modeled after the Philadelphia School of Design for Women founded in 1848, it instructed women in technical drawing and designing paper and textiles for manufacturers. Free tuition was offered to students taking industrial classes so that women could earn "respectable" livings and be prevented from marrying bad husbands. .
1853
  • On March 30th 1853 Vincent Van Gogh was born. Van Gogh worked as an artist in the Post-Impressionist period. This amazing Dutch artist only spent the last ten years of his life as a painter, but the quality of his work was not recognized until after his death. He is well known for his self- portraiture, autobiographical paintings, and works such as Starry Night and Fourteen Sunflowers. Even today Van Gogh's works are studied by art students as a model for colorful, expressive art.
1854
  • In 1854, the provision of Pennsylvania's School Law enforced separate education for the children of color. People of color were thought to have a lower level of intelligence. It is important to note this event in order to see the progress that American Schools have made. America has learned from past mistakes and has been trying to achieve greater racial equality through efforts such as desegregation.
1855
  • The Pennsylvania State University, founded as The Farmer's High School, consisted of only one building, Old Main. With time and federal grants, the university expanded and is now the largest campus in Pennsylvania. Today, Penn State University provides higher education in several fields, some of which include music, visual arts, performing arts, and art education.
1857
  • The National Education Association is created. The goal of the association is to give educators a voice. Today the NEA is the nation’s leading organization committed to advancing the cause of public education. NEA continues to maintain the same goals since its establishment in 1857. Their current mission is “to elevate the character and advance the interests of the profession of teaching and to promote the cause of popular education in the United States.”
1857
  • In 1857 Frederick W. Reddington and William Sanford, Jr. started Sanford Manufacturing Company. Their ambition was only to produce enough ink to make a living, however, they were sosuccessful that they are still in existence today. Makers of the famous Sharpie permanent marker, Sanford produces many other art supplies such as drawing materials, paints and calligraphy pens. Sanford also offers an ArtEdventures webpage, where children, teachers, and parents can go to find fun projects, art games, and helpful teaching hints.
1859
  • The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art was founded. Established by Peter Cooper, it is a college dedicated exclusively to prepare students for the professions of architecture, art and engineering. The college's Female School of Design, open during the day, offered free art classes as well as training in the new occupations of photography, telegraphy, "type-writing" and shorthand. As one of the first colleges to offer a free education to working-class children and to women, Cooper Union was apioneer long before education became a public policy.
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